A single insurance policy that combines several coverages previously sold separately. Examples include
homeowners insurance and commercial multiple peril insurance.
A system proposed in the 1990s in which auto insurance premiums would be paid to state governments through a
per-gallon surcharge on gasoline.
PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION
An independent federal government agency that administers the Pension Plan Termination Insurance program to
ensure that vested benefits of employees whose pension plans are being terminated are paid when they come due.
Only defined benefit plans are covered. Benefits are paid up to certain limits
Programs to provide employees with retirement income after they meet minimum age and service requirements. Life
insurers hold some of these funds. Since the 1970s responsibility for funding retirement has increasingly shifted
from employers (defined benefit plans that promise workers a specific retirement income) to employees (defined
contribution plans financed by employees that may or may not be matched by employer contributions).
A specific risk or cause of loss covered by an insurance policy, such as a fire, windstorm, flood, or theft. A namedperil policy covers the policyholder only for the risks named in the policy in contrast to an all-risk policy, which
covers all causes of loss except those specifically excluded.
PERSONAL ARTICLES FLOATER
A policy or an addition to a policy used to cover personal valuables, like jewelry or furs.
PERSONAL INJURY PROTECTION COVERAGE / PIP
Portion of an auto insurance policy that covers the treatment of injuries to the driver and passengers of the
Property/casualty insurance products that are designed for and bought by individuals, including homeowners and
Health insurance policy that allows the employee to choose between in-network and out-of-network care each time
medical treatment is needed.
A written contract for insurance between an insurance company and policyholder stating details of coverage.
The amount of money remaining after an insurer’s liabilities are subtracted from its assets. It acts as a financial
cushion above and beyond reserves, protecting policyholders against an unexpected or catastrophic situation.
POLITICAL RISK INSURANCE
Coverage for businesses operating abroad against loss due to political upheaval such as war, revolution, or
confiscation of property.
Policies that cover property loss and liability arising from pollution-related damages, for sites that have been
inspected and found uncontaminated. It is usually written on a claims-made basis so policies pay only claims
presented during the term of the policy or within a specified time frame after the policy expires.
PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATION
Network of medical providers which charge on a fee-for-service basis, but are paid on a negotiated, discounted fee
The particular location of the property or a portion of it as designated in an insurance policy.
The price of an insurance policy, typically charged annually or semiannually
A state tax on premiums paid by its residents and businesses and collected by insurers.
PREMIUMS IN FORCE
The sum of the face amounts, plus dividend additions, of life insurance policies outstanding at a given time.
The total premiums on all policies written by an insurer during a specified period of time, regardless of what
portions have been earned. Net premiums written are premiums written after reinsurance transactions.
In a reinsurance transaction, the insurance company that is reinsured.
Market for new issue securities where the proceeds go directly to the issuer.
Interest rate that banks charge to their most creditworthy customers. Banks set this rate according to their cost of
funds and market forces.
PRIOR APPROVAL STATES
States where insurance companies must file proposed rate changes with state regulators, and gain approval before
they can go into effect.
Securities that are not registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission and are sold directly to investors
A section of tort law that determines who may sue and who may be sued for damages when a defective product
injures someone. No uniform federal laws guide manufacturer’s liability, but under strict liability, the injured party
can hold the manufacturer responsible for damages without the need to prove negligence or fault.
PRODUCT LIABILITY INSURANCE
Protects manufacturers’ and distributors’ exposure to lawsuits by people who have sustained bodily injury or
property damage through the use of the product.
PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE
Covers professionals for negligence and errors or omissions that injure their clients.
PROOF OF LOSS
Documents showing the insurance company that a loss occurred.
Covers damage to or loss of policyholders’ property and legal liability for damages caused to other people or their
property. Property/casualty insurance, which includes auto, homeowners and commercial insurance, is one segment
of the insurance industry. The other sector is life/health. Outside the United States, property/casualty insurance is
referred to as nonlife or general insurance.
PROPERTY/CASUALTY INSURANCE CYCLE
Industry business cycle with recurrent periods of hard and soft market conditions. In the 1950s and 1960s, cycles
were regular with three year periods each of hard and soft market conditions in almost all lines of property/casualty
insurance. Since then they have been less regular and less frequent.
A November 1988 California ballot initiative that called for a statewide auto insurance rate rollback and for rates to
be based more on driving records and less on geographical location. The initiative changed many aspects of the
state’s insurance system and was the subject of lawsuits for more than a decade.
An entity that offers insurance to groups of similar businesses with similar exposures to risk.
PURE LIFE ANNUITY
A form of annuity that ends payments when the annuitant dies. Payments may be fixed or variable.